The type of surgery depends on the type of problem. Outpatient procedures may be used to alter the growth of the limb. This is often done through small incisions. If an outpatient procedure is done, your child can continue with most regular activities. Other times, surgery may be very involved and require the use of an external device that is attached to the limb with pins and wires. This device may be left on for months to correct the deformity or lengthen the leg. If this type of surgery is required, your child will be making weekly visits to Cincinnati Children's.
Leg discrepancy can develop from a medical issue in any portion of the femur or tibia. One leg may lengthen, but leg shortening is much more common. Factors that can cause leg length discrepancy include inherited growth deficiencies. Infections. A bone infection can cause delayed growth in the affected limb. Injury. If your child breaks a leg, it may be shorter once it heals. This is most likely to happen if the fracture or break was complicated, an open fracture, or an injury that affected the growth plate near the end of the bone. Alternatively, a break can cause bones to grow faster after healing, making a leg longer. Tumors. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. This is a condition that affects the ball (femoral head) of the hip joint. The femoral head may be friable and damage easily, sometimes leading to shortening of the thigh bone. Hemihypertrophy. In children with this condition, one side of the body grows more quickly than the other. Vascular malformations. These are abnormal clusters of veins and arteries that can form close to the bone and stimulate growth. Juvenile arthritis. Inflammation from arthritis can stimulate growth in the affected leg and cause discrepancy.
The effects of a short leg depend upon the individual and the extent of discrepancy. The most common manifestation if a lateral deviation of the lumbar spine toward the short side with compensatory curves up the spine that can extend into the neck and even impacts the TMJ. Studies have shown that anterior and posterior curve abnormalities also can result.
The doctor carefully examines the child. He or she checks to be sure the legs are actually different lengths. This is because problems with the hip (such as a loose joint) or back (scoliosis) can make the child appear to have one shorter leg, even though the legs are the same length. An X-ray of the child?s legs is taken. During the X-ray, a long ruler is put in the image so an accurate measurement of each leg bone can be taken. If an underlying cause of the discrepancy is suspected, tests are done to rule it out.
Non Surgical Treatment
The object of treatment for leg length discrepancy is to level the pelvis and equalize the length of the two limbs. Inequalities of 2-2.5 centimeters can be handled with the following. Heel lifts/ adjustable heel lifts can be used inside a shoe where shoes have a full heel counter. Heel lifts may be added to the heel on the outside of the shoe along with an internal heel lift. Full platforms along the forefoot and rearfoot area of a shoe can be added. There are many different adjustable heel lifts available on the market. For treatment of a leg length discrepancy, consult your physician. They may refer you to a Physiotherapist or Chiropractor for determination of the type of LLD. A Certified Pedorthist (Canada) will treat a structural leg length discrepancy with a heel lift or in larger discrepancies a footwear modification.
shoe lifts for height
Bone growth restriction (epiphysiodesis) The objective of this surgical procedure is to slow down growth in the longer leg. During surgery, doctors alter the growth plate of the bone in the longer leg by inserting a small plate or staples. This slows down growth, allowing the shorter leg to catch up over time. Your child may spend a night in the hospital after this procedure or go home the same day. Doctors may place a knee brace on the leg for a few days. It typically takes 2 to 3 months for the leg to heal completely. An alternative approach involves lengthening the shorter bone. We are more likely to recommend this approach if your child is on the short side of the height spectrum.